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1. DIPLOMATIC PROTECTION OF DUAL NATIONALS -

This article provides an overview of recent developments in dual nationality and its effects on diplomatic protection.

2. FRANCE -

France restores land border controls until December 13. Also, businesses convicted of illegal labor may be blacklisted.

3. ITALY -

Several developments have been announced.

4. NETHERLANDS -

Fines for illegal employment decreased from €12,000 to €8,000 per employee.

5. UNITED KINGDOM -

Several developments have been announced.

6. New Publications and Items of Interest -

New Publications and Items of Interest

7. Member News -

Member News

 

 
 
1. DIPLOMATIC PROTECTION OF DUAL NATIONALS
 

This article provides an overview of recent developments in dual nationality and its effects on diplomatic protection.

In recent years, there has been increasing interest in obtaining a second citizenship. In particular, obtaining citizenship and a passport from an EU country can give to the holder and his or her family the possibility of living and working freely in any of the EU countries without visas.

Dual citizenship, however, can create some issues when an individual seeks diplomatic protection. The general principle governing diplomatic protection of dual nationals is set forth by article 4 of the 1930 Hague Convention: "a State may not afford diplomatic protection to one of its nationals against a State whose nationality such person also possesses."

Even though few countries have ratified the Hague Convention, this provision (the so-called nonresponsibility rule) has been customarily accepted for many years in international law. The U.S. State Department, for example, notes that:

the U.S. Government recognizes that dual nationality exists but does not encourage it as a matter of policy because of the problems it may cause. Claims of other countries on dual national U.S. citizens may conflict with U.S. law and dual nationality may limit U.S. Government efforts to assist citizens abroad.

Other governments hold the same position. The Australian government, for example, tells dual nationals that it "may be limited in its ability to provide you with consular assistance should you seek it." The Canadian Department of Foreign Affairs states that dual citizenship "means that you are a citizen of more than one country. While having dual (or multiple) citizenship is legal in Canada, some countries do not legally recognize dual citizenship. This may limit or even prevent Canadian officials from assisting you, especially if you are incarcerated." The United Kingdom's Home Office states that "[a]s a dual national you can't get diplomatic help from the British government when you are in the other country where you hold citizenship. For example, if you hold both British and Chinese citizenship you can't get diplomatic help from the UK when you're in China."

The nonresponsibility rule seems, however, no longer the prevailing principle applicable to all cases where issues arise with respect to conflicting nationalities. During recent years, it has been replaced by the principle of "effective nationality" as outlined by the International Court of Justice in the Nottebohm case, decided in 1955:

[International arbitrators] have given their preference to the real and effective nationality, that which accord[s] with the facts, that [which is] based on stronger factual ties between the person concerned and one of these States whose nationality is involved. Different factors are taken into consideration, and their importance will vary from one case to the next: the habitual residence of the individual concerned but also the centre of his interests, his family ties, his participation in public life, attachment shown by him for a given country and inculcated in his children, etc.

Many tribunals have confirmed this principle. For example, the Iran-United States Claims Tribunal, in Case No. A-18, stated that the relevant rule is the one "that flows from the dictum of Nottebohm, the rule of real and effective nationality and the search for stronger factual ties between the person concerned and the one of the States whose nationality is involved."

In Case No. 296, Bavanati v. the Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran, the same tribunal dismissed a compensation case brought by an Iranian-U.S. dual national where the claimant could not establish a dominant and effective U.S. nationality. The tribunal stated that "evidence shows that since 1974, when the claimant moved to Germany, his habitual residence, center of interest, family ties, participation in public life and other attachments have been insufficient to support a finding that Mr. Bavanati's links to United States were dominant over his links to Iran."

Conclusion

Dual nationals may have limited diplomatic protection according to the principle set forth by the 1930 Hague Convention that a state may not afford diplomatic protection to one of its nationals against a state whose nationality such person also possesses.

In recent years, however, international tribunals—beginning with the milestone Nottebohm case decided by the International Court of Justice—have started switching from the nonresponsibility principle set forth in the Hague Convention to the principle of "effective nationality."

When assessing dual nationals' eligibility for diplomatic protection, the mere possession of citizenship is not the only factor to be taken into account. Other factors now considered include the center of his or her interests, family ties, and participation in public life, and his or her attachment for a given country that is inculcated in his or her children, if any.

 
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2. FRANCE
 

France has announced a state of urgency due to the recent terrorist attacks in Paris, prolonging border control measures. In other news, businesses convicted of illegal labor may be blacklisted.

State of Urgency Until End of February

Following the terrorist attacks in Paris of November 13-14, 2015, the French parliament has voted to maintain a "State of Urgency" until the end of February 2016. This means that the French government can prolong its border controls until that time.

Land Border Controls

For the Paris Conference on Climate, the French government restored the land border controls at train stations, airports, and seaports from November 13 to December 13, 2015. This was announced before the terrorist attacks prolonging the border controls.

While the border controls are in effect, citizens of the European Union, the European Economic Area, and Switzerland must present a valid identity document. Third country nationals must present papers and documents that authorize travel or stay in France: a residence permit or a long-stay visa and, for third-country nationals subject to a short-stay visa, a valid Schengen Visa C and supporting documents used to verify compliance with the conditions of entry listed in Annex I of Regulation (EC) No. 562/2006 of March 15, 2006.

Blacklist for Illegal Labor

Businesses convicted of illegal labor may now be on a "blacklist" posted on the website of the Ministry of Labour.

The Act of 10 July 2014 provided for the establishment of a "blacklist" of companies convicted of illegal work. A decree of October 21, 2015, specifies how this information will be posted on the website of the Ministry of Labour. The government hopes that the negative publicity affecting a company's image could dissuade it from hiring unauthorized workers in the future.

 
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3. ITALY
 

Several developments have been announced.

Citizenship Reform

The lower house of parliament has approved amendments to current Italian citizenship law (Law 91 of 1992), introducing significant changes to the citizenship acquisition process for children born in Italy of foreign parents. For the child to be eligible for citizenship, at least one parent must hold a European Union permit for long-term residents. Significant changes will also apply to foreign citizens who immigrated to Italy before the age of twelve. The new rules also facilitate citizenship application for those born in Italy who have resided there uninterruptedly until the age of 18. Before the amendments become law, they must be approved by the Italian upper house of parliament (Senate).

If approved, the reform will affect primarily eligibility requirements and the citizenship application process for the children of immigrants. The reform has taken into account the following possible scenarios:

Foreign children born in Italy:

  • Are considered Italian by birth if at least one of their parents has acquired permanent resident status (i.e., possesses a permanent European Community (EC) residence permit if non-European Union (EU) or, for EU citizens, has acquired permanent right of residence);
  • Are entitled to receive Italian citizenship if they have attended school for at least five years (if they attended primary school, they must have completed it successfully).

Foreign children who arrived in Italy within 12 years of age:

  • Are entitled to receive Italian citizenship if they have attended school for at least five years (if they attended primary school, they must have completed it successfully).

In the above situation, parents must apply at the local city council before the child becomes 18, or the child can apply up to 20 years of age.

Foreign children who arrived in Italy before the age of 18:

  • Can apply for citizenship if have resided regularly in Italy for at least six years and have successfully completed a cycle of education.

A temporary provision has also been introduced allowing those who are older than 20 but otherwise meet the new eligibility requirements to apply for citizenship. They may apply within one year after the new law enters into force. The eligibility requirements include having attended school for at least five years or more than one cycle of education and having resided regularly and uninterruptedly in Italy in the last five years. If they attended primary school, they must have completed it successfully.

News on Integration Agreement Assessment Procedure

The Ministry of Interior clarified the assessment procedure of the Integration Agreement in a circular letter of September 30, 2015.

Under the new regulation:

  • Upon expiration of the agreement's validity period (two years plus a one-year extension), if authorities cannot proceed with the assessment or if the foreigner has not attained full compliance (30 credits), the agreement will be considered partially fulfilled (with some exceptions). As a consequence, residence permit renewal rejection will not be automatic but at the authorities' discretion.
  • Foreigners previously legally residing in Italy who have signed the agreement as part of an immigration application will not be required to execute a further agreement in case of a new application for residence in Italy.

Update on Conversion of Study Permit to Work Permit

The Administrative Court of Piemonte (judgment no. 1530 of September 30, 2015) has confirmed that an application to convert a residence permit for study into a residence permit for work can only be filed before the study permit expiration date. It is not possible to apply for conversion after the expiration date of the permit, even if a renewal application is pending.

New Electronic Residence Permit With Microchip

As of November 10, 2015, residence permits are being issued according to the format provided for in Regulation (EC) No 380/2008 and Italy Ministerial Decree July 23, 2013.

The new permit is made of plastic paper containing a digital component. The digital component is made up of an embedded chip containing memory plus a microprocessor to digitally store biometric data and information. In the microchip, all the holder's biometric features and personal data as well as photo and fingerprints are stored. The microchip is not visible externally and the card looks like any other identification document, showing the holder's photo and limited data on its surface. These features increase document security, preventing misuse through the misappropriation of biometric data and enhancing the bond between the holder and the document. The new permit features allow Italian and European police to "read" the data stored and display them on the screen for immediate access, making it possible to check instantly if they match with the data stored in the main police database.

Impact on new and current applications:

  • Applications submitted before November 10, 2015: the permit is issued according to the "old" format
  • Applications submitted after November 10, 2015: applicants receive the new electronic residence permit
  • Holders of valid Residence permits: no action is required; the permits maintain validity. Upon renewal, holders are issued the new electronic permit

At a local level, the Florence Immigration Police department has sent an official communication on the application procedures, which will be subject to some changes. In particular:

  • All applicants will receive an individual residence permit card, regardless of their age. For minors, the card will be connected to the mother's permit.
  • Fingerprints are now required from children aged 6 or older.
  • Minor children's presence is therefore mandatory both when fingerprints are taken and at the residence permit retrieval appointment.

The above procedures are expected to apply soon to all Immigration Police departments throughout Italy. Therefore, they should be followed by all applicants.

 
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4. NETHERLANDS
 

Fines for illegal employment have decreased from €12,000 to €8,000.

On January 1, 2013, the government raised the fines for illegal employment by 50% (from
€8,000 to €12,000 per unauthorized employee) "to bring the fines up to the general price indexation level." In a landmark ruling on October 12, 2015, the High Administrative Court judged that this increase was unjustified and that any fine imposed on the basis of this rule must be deemed unreasonable (High Administrative Court 12 October 2015, 201500286/1/V6 http://www.raadvanstate.nl).

In response to this ruling, the Secretary of State of Social Affairs proclaimed on October 15, 2015, that the penalties for illegal employment are lowered from €12,000 to €8,000. Only in cases of grave and persistent noncompliance can an employer be fined €12,000 per unauthorized employee. This amendment entered into force with slight retroactive effect to October 7, 2015 (Official Gazette 2015, 36169).

 
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5. UNITED KINGDOM
 

Several developments have been announced.

Home Office Publishes Latest Changes to Immigration Rules—How Will These Affect Tier 2 Sponsors?

On October 29, 2015, the Home Office published its latest Statement of Changes to the Immigration Rules. The most relevant for points-based system Sponsors are those relating to Tier 2. These changes, effective November 19, 2015, are summarized below. Also included below is an update on other immigration-related changes, including the United States' extending its passport fast-track scheme to United Kingdom (UK) citizens and further roll-out of criminal record checks.

Key Changes

  • Sponsors must undertake a Disclosure and Barring Service (DBS) check on all migrants who are likely to come into contact with children as part of their job function. A copy of this must be kept in the migrant's HR file and is listed as an additional document in Appendix D—Keeping Documents. See https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/477829/Appendix_D_11-15_v1_0.pdf.
  • Other new requirements have also been added to Appendix D, including the need to obtain and keep reference letters and/or evidence of qualifications. See specific requirements for Tier 2 (General) migrants below.
  • Sponsors must inform the Home Office if they assign a Certificate of Sponsorship (CoS) to a family member of an employee of the Sponsor's organization, where it is a small or medium-sized organization or where the Sponsor is aware of a family relationship within a large organization.
  • The list of family members who cannot be assigned a CoS by a Level 1 or Level 2 user of the Sponsor Management System has been extended to include additional family members.
  • The Authorising Officer should check assigned CoS on a monthly basis.
  • Where a sponsored migrant applies for indefinite leave to remain and the Sponsor's license is suspended, the application will be refused if the license is subsequently revoked.
  • If a Sponsor forgets to renew its license, the Home Office has removed the 20-day grace period within which Sponsors were able to make a new application. The leave of all sponsored migrants will now be curtailed from when the license lapses.

Confirmations and Clarifications

  • A new Annex 8 has been added, which provides further guidance on the actions a Sponsor must take following takeovers, mergers, or group restructuring. This seeks to clarify a number of areas that were previously unclear, including the position following a share sale. An example of this is provided to confirm that, where a Sponsor's immediate owner has changed, often due to a share sale only, a new Sponsor Licence will be required but migrants need not need make a change of employment application.
  • The Home Office has confirmed that if it refuses a visa to a sponsored migrant on the basis that it does not consider a genuine vacancy to exist, it may suspend the sponsor license while it investigates.
  • During a Home Office audit or compliance visit, photographs may be taken of the Sponsor's premises.

Specific Tier 2 (General) Changes

  • Further restrictions have been introduced for Tier 4 migrants switching into the Tier 2 (General) category. The institutions where they studied for their degrees must be publicly funded.
  • The Home Office must be notified of any third party who helped recruit a migrant if the Resident Labour Market test is not used. The requirement to notify the Home Office within 10 days has been removed.
  • Within Appendix D, additional documents must be obtained and kept where a Resident Labour Market test has not been undertaken. Specifically, this includes copies of any qualifications the migrant holds to confirm skill level, and/or reference letters from previous employers or other evidence of experience.
  • A number of additional jobs have been added to the Shortage Occupation List (SOL):
  • All nursing posts. This is a temporary measure, pending the outcome of a further consultation by the Migration Advisory Committee (MAC). The MAC will then report on the need for nurses to remain on the SOL. This is welcome news for the profession because it means that starting in April 2016, nurses will be exempt from the Resident Labour Market Test, will receive higher priority in the allocation of places for the Tier 2 limit, and will not need to meet the £35,000 qualifying salary threshold for Tier 2 (General) applicants to secure permanent residence in the UK.
  • Four roles in the digital technology sector (product manager, data scientist, senior developer, and cyber security specialist). These roles are only available to Sponsors who can satisfy the new "qualifying company" criteria. A qualifying company is a licensed sponsor that employs between 20 and 250 employees, is not more than 25% owned by a company with one or more establishments in the UK having more than 250 employees, and has not been established in the UK for the purpose of supplying services exclusively to a single company or group in the UK. Each qualifying company will be able to sponsor up to 10 Tier 2 (General) migrants holding these positions. The roles also require migrants to have five or more years of relevant experience and demonstrable experience of having led a team.
  • Entry clearance issuance dates will be better aligned with migrants' start dates of employment in the UK. In effect, they can be post-dated in line with the applicant's stated date of travel to the UK, provided this is no later than 14 days after the start date of employment given by the migrant's Sponsor. This change will give more flexibility to migrants and hopefully will reduce the incidence of migrants having to reapply for entry clearance if they have been unable to travel to the UK within the short window provided by the 30-day travel visa.
  • Maintenance rules for family members are being amended so that where the Tier 2 migrant is exempt from having to show maintenance with extension applications, his or her dependents will also be exempt, even if applying at a later date.
  • Tier 2 (and Tier 5) migrants are limited to four weeks of unpaid absence from work per calendar year. This is being changed from the current period of 30 days.
  • Tier 2 provisions relating to maternity, paternity, and adoption leave will now also cover shared parental leave. This will be relevant where there is a salary reduction below the appropriate rate for the job, as stated in the government's Standard Occupation Codes, for the duration of the leave only.
  • Indefinite leave to remain (ILR) additional requirements for Tier 2 (General) migrants include the requirement for Sponsors to certify in writing that the migrant is still required for the employment in question for the foreseeable future and that the salary payable will continue for the foreseeable future. This will affect those migrants who have been issued a redundancy notice, for example, or where the migrant has given notice of termination of employment. Sponsors need to be aware of these new requirements when an application for ILR is submitted and a decision has been made regarding the end date of a migrant's employment.

United States Extends Passport Fast-Track Scheme to UK Citizens

This development will be extremely useful for British nationals who travel frequently to the United States for business. Similar to the UK Registered Traveller Scheme, frequent travelers to the United States can apply to join "Global Entry" starting on December 3, 2015. Travelers first must apply to the Home Office and pay a £42 processing fee. If the applicant passes UK vetting, he or she will receive an access code to use when applying for the Global Entry program, which costs £65 and is valid for five years. This new program is intended to speed up passage through U.S. immigration control. According to the United States, the new process cuts down passport control waiting times by about 70%. For more on this program and the expansion to UK travelers, see http://www.cbp.gov/travel/trusted-traveler-programs/global-entry.

Further Roll-Out of Criminal Record Checks

The Home Office is currently reviewing the further roll-out of the requirement for migrants to obtain police clearance certificates. Because this may be rolled out to Tier 2 migrants early in 2016, Sponsors should factor it in when planning for migrants to transfer to the UK early next year.

 
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6. New Publications and Items of Interest
 

The 2015 edition of the Global Business Immigration Practice Guide has been released by LexisNexis. Dozens of members of the Alliance of Business Immigration Lawyers (ABIL) co-authored and edited the guide, which is a one-stop resource for dealing with questions related to business immigration issues in immigration hotspots around the world.

The latest edition adds chapters on Ghana and Peru. Other chapters cover Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Costa Rica, the European Union, France, Germany, Hong Kong, India, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Mexico, the Netherlands, Nigeria, Russia, Singapore, South Africa, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

Latchi Delchev, a global mobility and immigration specialist for Boeing, called the guide "first-rate" and said the key strong point of the book is its "outstanding usability." She said she highly recommends the book and notes that it "is helpful even to seasoned professionals, as it provides a level of detail which is not easily gained from daily case management."

Mireya Serra-Janer, head of European immigration for a multinational IT company, says she particularly likes "the fact that the [guide] focuses not just on each country's immigration law itself but also addresses related matters such as tax and social security issues." She noted that the India chapter "is particularly good. The immigration regulations in India have always been hard to understand. Having a clear explanation of the rules there helps us sort out many mobility challenges."

Charles Gould, Director-General of the International Co-operative Alliance, said the guide is "an invaluable resource for both legal practitioners and business professionals. The country-specific chapters are comprehensive and answer the vast majority of questions that arise in immigration practice. Its clear and easy-to-follow structure and format make it the one volume to keep close at hand."

This comprehensive guide is designed to be used by:

  • Human resources professionals and in-house attorneys who need to instruct, understand, and liaise with immigration lawyers licensed in other countries;
  • Business immigration attorneys who regularly work with multinational corporations and their employees and HR professionals; and
  • Attorneys interested in expanding their practice to include global business immigration services.

This publication provides:

  • An overview of the immigration law requirements and procedures for over 20 countries;
  • Practical information and tips for obtaining visas, work permits, resident status, naturalization, and other nonimmigrant and immigrant pathways to conducting business, investing, and working in those countries;
  • A general overview of the appropriate options for a particular employee; and
  • Information on how an employee can obtain and maintain authorization to work in a target country.

Each chapter follows a similar format, making it easy to compare practices and procedures from country to country. Useful links to additional resources and forms are included. Collected in this Practice Guide, the expertise of ABIL's attorney members across the globe will serve as an ideal starting point in your research into global business immigration issues.

The list price is $359, but a 15% discount is available by visiting LexisNexis and entering discount code "ABIL15". Contact your Lexis/Nexis sales representative; call 1-800-833-9844 (United States), 1-518-487-3385 (international); fax 1-518-487-3584

ABIL on Twitter. The Alliance of Business Immigration Lawyers is available on Twitter: @ABILImmigration. RECENT ABIL BLOGS

 
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7. Member News
 

The following ABIL members and firms were named to Chambers Global:

Mark Ivener and Ivener and Fullmer LLP

Ronald Klasko

Charles Kuck

Robert Loughran and Foster, LLP

Maggio & Kattar, PC

Sharon Mehlman

Angelo Paparelli

Pearl Law Group

William Reich

Bernard Wolfsdorf

Stephen Yale-Loehr

ABIL Global:

Avi Gomberg and Gomberg Dalfen

The following ABIL members were named to Who's Who 2016:

Rami Fakhoury

Steve Garfinkel

Kehrela Hodkinson

Mark Ivener

Ronald Klasko

Charles Kuck

Robert Loughran

Sharon Mehlman

John Nahajzer

Angelo Paparelli

Julie Pearl

William Reich

Lynn Susser

Bernard Wolfsdorf

Stephen Yale-Loehr

ABIL Global:

Enrique Arellano

Bernard Caris

Eugene Chow

Laura Devine

Avi Gomberg

Kenneth Ing

Jelle Kroes

Marco Mazzeschi

Bettina Offer

Ariel Orrego-Villacorta

Nicolas Rollason

Maria Isa Soter

Mr. Arellano spoke on a panel, "Global Transfers, Skilled Workers, Employer Compliance," on November 19, 2015, at the International Bar Association's 7th Biennial Global Conference in London, England.

Mr. Caris spoke on a panel, "Can You Bring the Family?," on November 20, 2015, at the International Bar Association's 7th Biennial Global Conference in London, England.

Maria Celebi spoke on a panel, "BRICS Counties and the Emerging Markets," on November 20, 2015, at the International Bar Association's 7th Biennial Global Conference in London, England.

Mr. Chow spoke on a panel, "Citizenship—A Fundamental Right or a Commodity To Be Bought and Sold?," on November 20, 2015, at the International Bar Association's 7th Biennial Global Conference in London, England.

Mr. Chow spoke on a panel, "Tax—Mock Consultation," at the fall conference of the American Immigration Lawyer's Association's Rome District Chapter in London, England, on November 16-18, 2015.

Ms. Devine was named Woman Lawyer of the Year at the Law Society Excellence Awards 2015 in London, England. The awards celebrate those who demonstrate exceptional work and dedication.

Ms. Devine spoke on a panel, "Can You Bring the Family?," on November 20, 2015, at the International Bar Association's 7th Biennial Global Conference in London, England.

Laura Devine Solicitors was shortlisted for "Boutique Organisation of the Year: Female Leadership" in the Citywealth Power Women Awards, 2016. Information on the awards and how to vote.

Laura Devine Solicitors won "Immigration Law Firm of the Year" in Citywealth's Magic Circle Awards 2015.

Mr. Fakhoury was named to U.S. News and World Report's list of Best Law Firms in the United States.

Mr. Kroes will co-moderate a panel, "Now I Want a Passport—Immigration and Naturalization Issues," on March 1, 2016, at the International Bar Association's "International Wealth Transfer Practices" conference in London, England. MORE INFORMATION

Mr. Kroes is on the advisory board of a University of Amsterdam research project studying the practice of assessments of points-based entrepreneur visa applications by the Ministry of Economic Affairs.

Mr. Kroes moderated a panel discussion on October 6, 2015, at the International Bar Association's annual conference in Vienna, Austria, on mobility issues of owners and executives of closely held and family businesses venturing into other jurisdictions.

Mr. Kroes spoke on a global immigration panel, "Surprising Claims to and Losses of Non-U.S. Citizenship" at the fall conference of the American Immigration Lawyer's Association's Rome District Chapter in London, England, on November 16-18, 2015.

Mr. Kroes spoke on a panel, "Global Transfers, Skilled Workers, Employer Compliance," on November 19, 2015, at the International Bar Association's 7th Biennial Global Conference in London, England.

Vincent Lau spoke at the fall conference of AILA's Rome District Chapter on November 17-18, 2015, in London, England on a panel, "Creative and Unusual Green Card Options."

Mr. Loughran spoke on a panel, "The Global Battle for the Entrepreneur and Investor," on November 20, 2015, at the International Bar Association's 7th Biennial Global Conference in London, England.

Maggio & Kattar was named U.S. News and World Report's immigration law firm of the year for 2016.

Gunther Mävers moderated a panel and gave closing remarks on November 20, 2015, at the International Bar Association's (IBA) 7th Biennial Global Conference in London, England.

Mr. Mävers also moderated a panel at the IBA annual conference in October in Vienna, Austria. MORE INFORMATION.

Mr. Mazzeschi spoke on a global immigration panel, "Surprising Claims to and Losses of Non-U.S. Citizenship," at the fall conference of AILA's Rome District Chapter on November 17-18, 2015, in London, England.

Mr. Paparelli spoke at the fall conference of AILA's Rome District Chapter on November 17-18, 2015, in London, England, on a panel, "Current Issues With L-1B Adjudications."

Nicolas Rollason spoke on "Global Panel: Surprising Claims to and Losses of Non-U.S. Citizenship," at the fall conference of AILA's Rome District Chapter on November 17-18, 2015, in London, England.

Isa Soter spoke on a panel, "BRICS Counties and the Emerging Markets," on November 20, 2015, at the International Bar Association's 7th Biennial Global Conference in London, England.

William Stock, of Klasko Immigration Law Partners, spoke on a panel, "The New Face of U.S. Immigration: 2015 and Beyond—'Higher Walls, Wider Gates'?," on November 20, 2015, at the International Bar Association's 7th Biennial Global Conference in London, England.

Karl Waheed spoke on a panel, "The Current European Immigration Scene," on November 20, 2015, at the International Bar Association's 7th Biennial Global Conference in London, England.

Chris Watters spoke on a panel, "Can You Bring the Family?," on November 20, 2015, at the International Bar Association's 7th Biennial Global Conference in London, England.

 
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