|1. AUSTRALIA - The Australian government has announced a raft of changes to visa programs effective July 1, 2012.|
|2. BELGIUM - Belgium is working on implementation of the EU Blue Card directive; there is an increasing focus on compliance; and a potential future change relates to the transfer of legislative power regarding work permits from the federal level to the regions.|
|3. CANADA - Canada has announced new rules for criminal admissibility to Canada, and new criteria for Québec permanent residence applications.|
|4. CHINA - China issues new Entry and Exit Administration Law and tightens immigration enforcement, while the U.S. welcomes more visitors from China.|
|5. INDIA - The "Visa on Arrival" policy has been extended to residents of France, Germany, and Russia.|
|6. ITALY - Non-EU students living abroad who want to attend a university, conservatory, or academy in Italy must have filed a pre-enrollment request for the 2012-2013 academic year. In other news, no new quotas are expected for 2012, the Italian government has approved implementation of the Blue Card Directive, and permits of stay for up to 12 months are now allowed for people who have recently lost their job.|
|7. UNITED KINGDOM - There are new developments in the immigration rules for family migration and other applications.|
|8. Member News - Member News|
The Australian government has announced a raft of changes to visa programs effective July 1, 2012. Changes to the employer nominated permanent residence visa program were outlined in the last ABIL Global Immigration Update. Changes to the General Skilled Independent visas and Business Skills visas are outlined below.
As of July 1, 2012, the introduction of SkillSelect represents a significant change in how Australia manages its skilled migration program. According to the Department of Immigration and Citizenship (DIAC), the new model will allow Australia to "select the best and brightest skilled migrants from a pool of prospective migrants registered on the system."
SkillSelect will enable skilled workers and business people to submit an Expression of Interest (EOI) to migrate to Australia by recording their details in an online database. An EOI will serve as a quasi-resume for intending applicants with the information accessible by Australian employers as well as state and territory governments, which may then nominate the individual for employment or for a skilled visa. The Australian government may also invite the person to lodge (file) a Skilled Independent visa application.
The objective of the new program is to ensure that Australia's skilled migration program is based on the country's economic needs. Through SkillSelect, the Australian government will be able to manage who is able to apply for skilled migration, when they can apply, and in what numbers. This is expected to streamline the program and lead to more efficient processing of applications.
It is also designed to help address regional skill shortages by allowing intending migrants to indicate in their EOI that they are willing to live and work in certain regions of Australia.
Expression of Interest
An EOI includes basic personal information, details of the person's nominated occupation and relevant work experience, educational qualifications, level of English language ability, and the outcome of a skills assessment (by a gazetted assessing authority) in the person's nominated occupation. For business skills visa applicants, an EOI requires details of the person's business and/or investment experience.
An EOI will remain in DIAC's database for two years. During that period, it will be accessible by employers looking to fill vacancies, state and territory governments looking to attract skills, and Australian businesses.
Changes to Business Skills Visas
DIAC has also announced changes to Business Skills visas, replacing the former program with a new "Business Innovation and Investment" scheme. The new visa structure is designed to attract significant migrant investment, entrepreneurial talent, and demonstrated innovative business history and skills to the Australian market.
As part of these changes, beginning on July 1, 2012, the current 13 Business Skills visa subclasses are consolidated into the following three:
- Business Talent (permanent) subclass 132
- Business Innovation and Investment (provisional) subclass 188
- Business Innovation and Investment (permanent) subclass 888
The reforms include the following key changes:
The suite of business visa reforms are intended to better align Australia's immigration policy with countries such as the United Kingdom, Canada, Singapore, and New Zealand.
- introducing an innovation points test for provisional visa applicants
- integrating the new Business Innovation and Investment visas with the skilled migrant selection model, SkillSelect (discussed above)
- facilitating entry of entrepreneurs that have sourced at least A$1milllion in venture capital funding in Australia from a member of the Australian Venture Capital Association Limited
- increasing asset thresholds to better align with the Australian business community
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Belgium is working on implementation of the European Union (EU) Blue Card directive; there is an increasing focus on compliance; and a potential future change relates to the transfer of legislative power regarding work permits from the federal level to the regions.
Work Permits; Implementation of the EU Blue Card Directive
The Belgian work permit system is a very business-friendly model in practice. The "regular" work permit, with a resident labor test, has become very rare in the corporate immigration context. "Fast-track" work permits, without a resident labor test, can be obtained quite fast, within two to three weeks after the date of filing of the application.
The economic recession has not led to drastic changes to the Belgian work permit system. However, one protective measure, regarding Bulgarian and Romanian nationals, should be mentioned:
- In principle, European Union (EU) nationals may work in Belgium without work permits, on the basis of the right of free movement of workers.
- For Bulgaria and Romania, which joined the EU on January 1, 2007, restrictions on this right of free movement of workers were maintained during an initial transition term until the end of 2008. That was prolonged for another three years, until December 31, 2011. The Belgian government has decided to continue the restrictions until December 31, 2013. As a rationale for this decision, the government explicitly referred to the expected economic recession in 2012/2013 as well as to similar decisions of neighboring countries to maintain the restrictions.
In other developments, the Belgian Parliament and the Minister of Employment are currently working on implementation of the EU Blue Card Directive.
The available texts indicate that the Blue Card will exist alongside the current fast-track work permit B for highly skilled employees. The salary threshold for a Blue Card in 2012 will probably be €49,995, which is higher than the current threshold for a highly skilled work permit B (€37,721 for 2012).
The Belgian authorities will probably choose not to take professional experience into account to prove "higher professional qualifications," but a higher education will be required, on condition that the studies needed to acquire it lasted at least three years. Belgium will probably not apply numerical limits.
Focus on Compliance
New Code on Labour and Social Security Criminal Law. A new Code on Labour and Social Security Criminal Law took effect on July 1, 2011. It mainly codifies existing compliance rules with regard to labor and social security law-related issues, including employment of foreigners, but also creates new compliance rules.
Unauthorized/illegal employment of a foreigner who is not entitled to live in Belgium more than three months is among the infringements that are considered very serious ("type 4" infringements).
The potential penalties for such infringement include a jail term of six months to three years and/or a criminal fine between €3,600 and €36,000 per employee, with a maximum of €3,600,000 (€36,000 x 100). Furthermore, the employer may be prohibited from operating the business for a limited time, between one month and three years. The court may also order closure of the company for the same duration.
The same two accompanying penalties (prohibition from operating the business and closure of the company for a limited time, between one month and three years) may be imposed upon "HR advisors," largely defined as professionals providing advice or help to one or more employers or employees with regard to the carrying out of obligations as sanctioned by the Code, either for their own account or within an entity. According to some comments to the Code, HR consultants and payroll personnel are included in this category, but probably not lawyers or notary publics (although they may risk being an accomplice to an infringement). The courts can only impose these two accompanying penalties if they are deemed necessary to stop an infringement or to avoid repeat offending, provided that they are in proportion with overall socio-economic interests.
If the Public Prosecutor determines that this infringement does not justify criminal prosecution, an administrative fine may be imposed, ranging between €1,800 and €18,000 per employee, with a maximum of €1,800,000 (€18,000 x 100).
The Belgian authorities are working on implementation of the EU Illegals Employment Directive. A first proposal of an Act has been prepared but the text is not yet publicly available. The new Act may include the following:
- The basic principle is that employers cannot employ a person who is not an EU citizen, who does not enjoy the right of free movement, and who is present on the Belgian territory, without that person meeting the requirements for stay or residence in Belgium. The employer must check the residence documents of the potential employee before employment. Furthermore, the employer must keep a copy of these documents available for inspection and notify the competent authorities of the start of the employment.
- The new Act provides effective, proportionate, and dissuasive sanctions against employers who employ unauthorized third-country nationals in Belgium. These include general financial and criminal sanctions. The employer may also be liable to pay any outstanding remuneration to the employee. Finally, the employer may be required to pay taxes and social security contributions to Belgium.
- If the infringing employer is a direct subcontractor, the contractor will also be severally liable, unless the subcontractor states in writing that it does not employ unauthorized employees. If the infringing employer is an indirect subcontractor, the contractor can only be severally liable after notification by the social inspection services and only up to the salary as of the date of such notification.
- Employees may exercise their rights before the court, as may representative organizations for employers or employees and the Centre for Equal Opportunities and Opposition to Racism (an independent government agency that fights discrimination and racism and that assists victims).
Draft Act on increased coordination of inspection of illegal employment and fraud. On June 22, 2012, the Belgian federal government agreed to a draft Act that approves a cooperation agreement between the inspection departments on federal (Belgium) and regional (Brussels, Flanders, and Wallonia) levels. According to a press release on June 23, 2012, the aim is to enhance the cooperation between the inspection departments at the different levels "primarily in order to inspect the employment of foreign employees."
Potential Change: Transfer of Legislative Power From Federal to Regional Level
A potential future change relates to the transfer of legislative power regarding work permits from the federal level to the regions. At present the regions (Brussels, Flanders, and Wallonia) process work permits on the basis of federal legislation. The coalition agreement of the federal government and the general policy statement of the federal Minister of Employment both mention the transfer of legislative authority regarding economic migration to the regions.
No specific steps have been taken yet to initiate this process. It is not yet clear whether, when, and to what extent the transfer of legislative power will be implemented. This could lead to different rules for Brussels, Flanders, and Wallonia.
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Canada has announced new rules for criminal admissibility to Canada, and new criteria for Québec permanent residence applications.
New Rules for Criminal Admissibility to Canada
Certain individuals, previously ineligible for entry to Canada due to past criminality, may be eligible for a fee-exempt "on the spot" temporary resident permit for one visit to Canada, under new rules that took effect on March 1, 2012.
To qualify for the exemption, the port-of-entry applicant must:
- have served no jail time, and
- have committed no other acts that would prevent him or her from entering Canada.
Applicants may be eligible for a fee waiver if they:
- have been convicted of an eligible offense (or its equivalent in foreign law);
- have served no jail time;
- have committed no other acts that would prevent them from entering Canada; and
- are not inadmissible for any other reason.
Eligible convictions include those equivalent to criminal offenses under the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act (IRPA), Section 36(2).
The equivalent convictions vary from country to country. Among others, they include:
- driving under the influence of alcohol;
- public mischief; and
No serious criminal offenses, defined under Section 36(1) of IRPA, are eligible. Among others, they include:
- fraud over C$5000; and
- assault causing bodily harm.
Applicants may become admissible again if they:
- apply for a temporary resident permit and are approved;
- demonstrate through appropriate documentation that they meet the legal requirements to be deemed rehabilitated;
- apply for rehabilitation and are approved; or
- obtain a pardon.
Legal representation for these various applications and processes is strongly recommended because refusal rates are high. Contact your Alliance of Business Immigration Lawyers attorney for assistance.
New Criteria for Québec Permanent Residence Applications
Over the last three years, the number of applications for economic permanent immigration to the Canadian province of Québec has more than doubled, rising from approximately 30,000 in 2008 to approximately 65,000 in 2011. In response to this growing volume, the Québec government's Ministry of Immigration and Cultural Communities (MICC) proposed on March 21, 2012, an omnibus bill encompassing several major changes to Québec's immigration law, the Loi sur l’immigration au Québec. If passed in the Québec National Assembly, the bill will represent significant changes to eligibility for obtaining a Québec Selection Certificate to immigrate permanently to Québec.
The proposed changes will govern applications accepted by Québec for the period April 1, 2012, through March 31, 2013. These changes are aimed at expediting processing times and according priority treatment to candidates for Québec permanent residence with professional profiles currently highly sought after in the Québec labor market, and at restricting the eligibility of other candidates. A new Demand Management System will dictate the numbers of applications for Québec permanent residence accepted.
Applications for Québec permanent residence by foreign workers and students will be divided into two main groups. Group 1 will not have any restrictions on the number of applications accepted and will include candidates who obtain at least 12 out of 16 points for their Field of Training based on the MICC's list of Fields of Training. Other candidates who may form part of Group 1 are foreign nationals working in Québec with valid work permits, foreign nationals participating in recognized youth exchange programs, foreign nationals holding valid study permits who obtained their diplomas from recognized post-secondary educational institutions in Québec, and foreign nationals with an employment offer validated by the MICC. Foreign workers who can be attributed points for their Field of Training but obtain less than 12 points will form part of Group 2, with a limit of 14,300 applications.
Under the new Demand Management System, applications for business immigrants will be restricted to pre-set quotas. For investors, the maximum number of applications accepted for the period April 1, 2012, through March 31, 2013, is 2,700. That quota was reached on April 12, 2012. A maximum of 215 entrepreneur applications will be accepted for the April 1, 2012-March 31, 2013, period. The Demand Management System is not intended to have an impact on the Québec government's commitment to accept approximately 50,000 immigrants annually from 2012 to 2015. The proposed changes will make it more difficult, however, for many candidates who would have qualified before March 21, 2012, for permanent immigration to Québec.
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China has issued a new Entry and Exit Administration Law and tightened immigration enforcement, while the U.S. is welcoming more visitors from China.
On June 30, 2012, the Chinese National People's Congress' Standing Committee enacted a new Exit-Entry Administration Law, effective July 1, 2013. This is the first major reform of China's immigration law since 1986. The overriding policy behind the law is to create harsher punishments for immigration law violations in China.
One particular issue that the new law aims to tackle is that a growing number of foreigners have managed to live and work in China on short-term business visitor visas and periodically travel to neighboring countries and regions, such as Hong Kong, to renew them. The new law imposes monetary sanctions on employers for every foreigner illegally employed and gives the government authority to confiscate any money earned from such employment. It also subjects foreigners who illegally stay in the country to fines and possible detention. To provide more flexibility, the law reduced the minimum length of work-related residence permits from 180 days to 90 days, which will likely result in qualified employees applying for work permits rather than working on F business visitor visas. It also creates a "talent introduction" visa category, allowing visas for foreign talent. The details of this visa category will be set by agency regulations.
The law requires foreigners who apply for residence permits to provide their fingerprints and other biometric data to the public security bureau and gives the public security bureau and Ministry of Foreign Affairs the authority to promulgate regulations to collect biometric data from persons crossing the Chinese borders. Foreigners may be found "unsuitable" to stay due to violations of China's laws and regulations. Such foreigners may be given a deadline to voluntarily depart the country. Those who commit "severe violations" may be deported and found inadmissible for 10 years.
In line with China's immigration reform efforts, certain Chinese cities have been cracking down on illegal entries, overstays, and unauthorized employment in China. The Beijing government initiated a "100-day campaign" in May. Pursuant to Chinese immigration law and regulations, foreign nationals must carry their passports and accommodation registration documents at all times. Beijing police have been checking passports and registrations in targeted popular locations for foreign nationals in Beijing, such as Sanlitun and university areas. They have been looking for those who have committed a crime, overstayed their periods of admission, or are working illegally. Beijing authorities have asked the police department to publicize this enforcement effort across the city via public notices and face-to-face communications. A hotline also allows residents to give tips to the police.
Although Shanghai officials denied that the 100-day campaign has spread to Shanghai, a Shanghai expatriate blog, City Weekend, reported on June 1, 2012, that Shanghai police raided two bars popular among foreign residents in the "Yongfu Lu" strip area, checking passports and work permits of foreigners.
Officials in Chengdu, the capital of Sichuan province in southwest China, have confirmed that a similar campaign will be rolled out there soon.
Overseas, Chinese consulates are becoming increasingly strict in their review and adjudication of visa applications, especially the requirement that all questions on a visa application be answered. All spaces must be filled in, including when the answer is "none" or "N/A." In the section about family members, all applicants must list at least one family member, even if they do not live in the same household.
Regarding Chinese visitors to the U.S., the U.S. Department of State announced in April that it aims to increase visitor visa processing capacity in China by 40 percent in 2012. In the first half of fiscal year 2012, U.S. consulates in China issued more than 453,000 visas, which was a 46 percent increase from the same time period in 2011. The State Department has reduced the waiting time to get a visa appointment in China to an average of five days. To further increase visa processing capacity, the State Department has hired more bilingual consular adjudicators and is exploring the possibility of adding visa issuance services in Wuhan, China.
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The "Visa on Arrival" policy has been extended to residents of France, Germany, and Russia.
The Ministry of External Affairs (MEA) has extended the tourist "Visa on Arrival" policy to residents of France, Germany, and Russia. India currently issues a Visa on Arrival to tourists from 11 countries: Japan, Indonesia, Philippines, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Singapore, Myanmar, Finland, Luxembourg, and New Zealand. After the MEA's nod, the proposal has been sent to the Union home ministry as the final tourist visa on arrival clearing authority is its Bureau of Immigration.
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Non-EU students living abroad who want to attend a university, conservatory, or academy in Italy must have filed a pre-enrollment request for the 2012-2013 academic year. In other news, no new quotas are expected for 2012, the Italian government has approved implementation of the Blue Card Directive, and permits of stay for up to 12 months are now allowed for people who have recently lost their job.
Pre-Registration With Universities, Academies, and Conservatories
Non-European Union students living abroad who want to attend a university, conservatory, or academy in Italy must have filed a pre-enrollment request for the 2012-2013 academic year by June 29, 2012. Each university has a quota for enrollments from abroad. In early August, the Italian consulates will release information regarding entrance exams, including the Italian language exam, that will take place on September 3, 2012. Students will receive entry visas for Italy before August 24. Only those who pass the exams may enroll and stay in Italy with a residence permit for study purposes.
No New Quotas Expected in 2012
The Ministry of Interior, Annamaria Cancellieri, announced recently that almost no new quotas are expected to be issued in 2012 due to the current economic situation. According to the Ministry, there is a very low demand for new quotas. Only quotas for seasonal workers will be issued.
Blue Card Directive Implemented
The Italian government approved on June 7, 2012, a decree to implement the Blue Card Directive. The Directive will enter into force as soon as it is published in the Official Gazette. The new decree is intended to facilitate the entry of highly skilled workers holding a Blue Card issued by another EU country and will regulate the issuance of Blue Cards for workers already living in Italy.
Permits of Stay Provided for Job-Losers
People who have recently lost their job, whether they resigned or were terminated, may be placed on a list of job-seekers and thereafter obtain a permit of stay while they await re-employment. The maximum validity for this permit is 12 months. After the expiration, such foreigners are entitled to remain in Italy if they can prove that they have sufficient financial resources for themselves and their family members.
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|7. UNITED KINGDOM|
There are new developments in the immigration rules for family migration and other applications.
New Immigration Rules for Family Migration and Other Applications
A Statement of Changes to the Immigration Rules was issued on June 13, 2012, which covers a wide range of visa applications, including those to join or remain with family members in the United Kingdom (UK) who are British citizens or settled persons. The new rules are effective on July 9, 2012. The rules will also: (1) make changes to applications under a human rights treaty to incorporate them within the Immigration Rules; (2) include a provision for those who have overstayed in the UK; and (3) add South Korea as a participant in the Tier 5 Youth Mobility Scheme, with 500 places pro-rated for the rest of this year.
Below is a summary of the main changes to the immigration rules:
The government has decided to introduce a minimum gross annual income threshold suggested by the Migration Advisory Committee (MAC) of £18,600, which a British citizen or settled person must be able to demonstrate to sponsor the settlement in the UK of a non-European Economic Area spouse or partner, or prospective spouse of partner. If the couple has a child, the minimum income threshold will be £22,400 and £2,400 for each further child. There will be an exemption for sponsors receiving certain disability allowances.
Income may be from a variety of sources, including employment or self-employment, interest from savings, and others, and may also include cash savings of the sponsor or applicant above £16,000 that has been held for at least six months in a regulated financial institution.
All applications submitted before July 9, 2012, will be decided under the existing rules. For these applicants, the existing rules will apply for each subsequent application, up to and including an application for indefinite leave to remain.
Introduction of New English Language Test in October 2013
Beginning in October 2013, all applicants for settlement (including Points-Based System migrants) must take both the "life in the UK" test and an English language test at level B1 or above, unless they are exempt.
The probationary period will increase from two years to five years before a migrant may apply for settlement as the spouse/partner of a British citizen or settled person or as a dependent of a Points-Based System Migrant. The ability to obtain indefinite leave to enter based on four years' marriage or cohabitation with a British citizen will be abolished.
Furthermore, the ability to apply to settle in the UK after 14 years of residence will be abolished. Instead, applicants must have resided in the UK for 20 years or be able to demonstrate they have no ties to their country of origin before they can apply to begin a 10-year route to settlement in the UK.
Over Age Dependent Relatives
It will no longer be possible to switch into this category in the UK. All applicants outside the UK will be limited to close family members; i.e., children over 18, parents, grandparents, sons, daughters, brothers, and sisters. Parents and grandparents over 65 must demonstrate that as a result of age, illness, or disability, they require a level of long-term personal care that can only be provided in the UK by their relative and without recourse to public funds.
The Statement of Intent: Family Migration (summarizes the new rules)
New SOC Codes and Rules for Tiers 2 and 5 of the Points Based System from 14 June
New Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) codes at National Qualifications Framework (NQF) 6+ are now applicable for all tier 2 visa applications, with the exception of shortage occupation roles and some roles in the creative sector, where the SOC codes at NQF 4+ still apply. It is important to check whether the SOC codes you currently use are still listed in the new codes (see link below). The Immigration Rules and UK Border Agency guidance have been amended to reflect this change.
The MAC is reviewing the SOC codes and will consider evidence from employers on suitability. Evidence must be submitted to the MAC by July 27, 2012.
Finally, changes to the resident labor market test means that a Job Centre plus advertisement is no longer necessary for PhD-level roles and also for those earning between £70,000 and £150,000.
Occupation Codes of Practice for Tier 2 Sponsors
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|8. Member News|
Jacqueline Bart will speak at The Canadian Institute's "Employing Foreign Workers" conference on September 20-21, 2012, in Toronto, Ontario. This conference is a way for industry, government, and legal professionals in Ontario and Eastern Canada to come together and find solutions to common challenges with respect to the issue of foreign workers. Panelists will discuss forthcoming changes to the Canadian immigration system.
Jacqueline Bart will speak at the first plenary session of the 56th UIA Congress in Dresden, Germany, on November 1, 2012, on "Global Market vs. Protectionism" in the immigration context. As the president of the UIA Immigration Commission, she will also co-chair a joint Immigration and Employment Law Commission session on "Global Employees: Immigration Considerations for Employers" at the annual conference.
Laura Devine spoke on behalf of the Union Internationale des Avocats' Immigration and Nationality Commission in Buenos Aires, Argentina, at the Family Law Commission's mid-year seminar in April 2012. She gave a presentation on immigration issues in family law.
Ron Klasko was mentioned in the Philadelphia Inquirer in an article published on June 21, 2012, on the topic of Asians leading Latinos in U.S. immigration.
Jelle Kroes will co-moderate a panel discussion, "Mobility, Tax and Passports: Implications of Crossing the Border," in a joint session of the Immigration and Nationality Law Committee and the Individual Tax and Private Client Committee on Tuesday, October 2, 2012, at the International Bar Association's 2012 Annual Conference in Dublin, Ireland. For more information, see page 33 of the preliminary program.
Robert Loughran will be a panelist in a joint session, "The Employees You Really, Really Want To Bring Into the Country – Corporate Immigration Challenges and Frustrations!," to be held by the INLC/Corporate Counsel Forum on Monday, October 1, 2012, at the International Bar Association’s 2012 Annual Conference in Dublin, Ireland. For more information, see the preliminary program.
Gunther Mävers, Karl Waheed, Marco Mazzeschi, Maria Celebi, and Enrique Arellano contributed to the Global Mobility Handbook, published by LawQuest.
Cyrus Mehta was a Discussion Leader, Third Party Placements panel, at the American Immigration Lawyers Association's Annual Conference in Nashville, Tennessee, on June 15, 2012.
Cyrus Mehta was quoted in several recent publications, including ILW.com on DREAM relief, Fronteras on Mitt Romney's remarks on immigration, and the Business Standard on the exhaustion of H-1B visa numbers in the United States for fiscal year 2013, and and Economic Times.
Nick Rollason spoke on the global immigration aspects of the United Kingdom Bribery Act at the American Immigration Lawyers Association's Global Forum in Nashville, Tennessee, on June 13, 2012.
The Wolfsdorf Immigration Law Group will present a free webinar, "Visa Options for International Scholars, Faculty and Staff," to be held Thursday, July 12, 2012. For more information or to register, see here.
Several ABIL members co-authored and edited the new publication, Global Business Immigration Practice Guide, released on May 31, 2012, by LexisNexis. The Practice Guide is a one-stop resource for dealing with questions related to business immigration issues in immigration hotspots around the world.
This comprehensive guide is designed to be used by:
- Human resources professionals and in-house attorneys who need to instruct, understand, and liaise with immigration lawyers licensed in other countries;
- Business immigration attorneys who regularly work with multinational corporations and their employees and HR professionals; and
- Attorneys interested in expanding their practice to include global business immigration services.
This publication provides:
- An overview of the immigration law requirements and procedures for over 20 countries;
- Practical information and tips for obtaining visas, work permits, resident status, naturalization, and other nonimmigrant and immigrant pathways to conducting business, investing, and working in those countries;
- A general overview of the appropriate options for a particular employee; and
- Information on how an employee can obtain and maintain authorization to work in a target country.
Each chapter follows a similar format, making it easy to compare practices and procedures from country to country. Useful links to additional resources and forms are included. Collected in this Practice Guide, the expertise of ABIL's attorney members across the globe will serve as an ideal starting point in your research into global business immigration issue.
ORDER HERE. International customers who do not want to order through the bookstore can order through Nicole Hahn at (518) 487-3004 or Nicole.firstname.lastname@example.org.
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